History Of Ancient Egypt

History Of Ancient Egypt – Despite its somewhat clichéd image, there was much more to ancient Egypt than temples, tombs and Tutankhamun. As the first nation-state in the world, before the Greek and Roman civilizations by several millennia, Egypt was responsible for some of the most important achievements in human history – where writing was invented, the first stone monuments were erected and all cultures. in place, which remains largely unchanged for thousands of years.

All this was made possible by the Nile River, which made life possible in a land with almost no rain. In contrast to the barren ‘red land’ of the desert which the Egyptians called deshret, the narrow banks of the river were called kemet (black land), named after the rich clay deposited by the river’s annual floods. The bountiful crops grown on this rich land were then collected as taxes by a highly organized bureaucracy working for the king (pharaoh). They redirected this wealth to run the administration and to finance ambitious building projects designed to increase the royal status.

History Of Ancient Egypt

History Of Ancient Egypt

Although the structure has come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the survival of so many pyramids, temples and tombs has created a misleading impression of Egypt as a morbid bunch obsessed with religion and death, when they love life so much that they go to greatness. long to ensure continued f or eternity. The depth of this belief suffused every aspect of the life of the ancient Egyptians’, and gave a culture that extraordinary coherence and conservatism.

Ancient Egypt Facts And History

They believed that they had gods to protect, and each pharaoh was considered the god’s representative on earth, ruling with divine approval. Absolute monarchy was integral to Egyptian culture, and the history of the country was shaped around the length of each Pharaoh’s reign. Thirty royal dynasties ruled over a period of 3000 years, now divided into Old, Middle and New Kingdoms separated by intermittent periods of turmoil (intermediate period) when the country was divided into north (Lower Egypt) and south (Upper Egypt).

When this schism finally became permanent at the end of the New Kingdom (around 1069 BC), foreign powers gradually came to dominate the government. But even then, Egyptian culture was so deeply rooted that successive invaders could not escape its influence, and Libyans, Nubians and Persians all came to adopt traditional Egyptian ways. The Greeks were so impressed by the ancient culture that Egypt considered the ‘cradle of civilization’, and even the Romans who occupied it adopted the ancient gods and traditions of the country.

It was only at the end of the 4th century AD, when the Roman Empire embraced Christianity, that ancient Egypt finally died out; the gods were taken from them, the temples were closed down, and all the knowledge of the ‘pagan’ hieroglyphs transmitted by the culture was lost for some 1400 years.

The history of the Pharaohs of Egypt is based on the year of the reign of each king, or pharaoh, a word that comes from per-aa (big house), meaning palace. Among the hundreds of pharaohs who ruled Egypt over a period of 3000 years, the following are some of the names most frequently found around ancient sites.

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Narmer c 3100 BC The first king of united Egypt after conquering northern (Lower) Egypt, Narmer of southern (Upper) Egypt is depicted as the victor in the famous Narmer Palette in the Egyptian Museum.

He may be identified with the Semitic King Menes, founder of the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis.

Zoser (Djoser) c 2667–2648 BC As the second king of the 3rd dynasty, Zoser was buried in Egypt’s first pyramid, the world’s oldest monumental stone building, designed by the architect Imhotep. The statue of Zoser in the foyer of the Egyptian Museum shows a long-haired king with a thin moustache, wearing a tight robe and a striped nemes (headcloth).

History Of Ancient Egypt

Sneferu c 2613–2589 BC The first king of the 4th dynasty, and revered by later generations, Sneferu was the builder of Egypt’s greatest pyramid. He was responsible for four of these structures, and his final resting place, the Red (North) Pyramid at Dahshur, was Egypt’s first true pyramid and the model for the more famous pyramid at Giza. See also p210. Khufu (Cheops) c 2589–2566 BC As the son and successor of Sneferu, Khufu was the second king of the 4th dynasty.

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Best known as the largest pyramid in Egypt, the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only surviving one is the smallest royal statue in Egypt, a 7.5 cm high statue in the Egyptian Museum. The gold furniture of Hetepheres’ mother is also in the museum.

Khafre (Khephren, Chephren) c 2558–2532 BC Khafre was the youngest son of Khufu who succeeded his half-brother as the fourth king of the 4th dynasty. He built the famous second pyramid of Giza and although he is best known as the model for the face of the Great Sphinx, the diorite statue in The Egyptian Museum is also amazing.

Menkaure (Mycerinus) c 2532–2503 BC As the son of Khafre and the fifth king of the 4th dynasty, Menkaure built the smallest of the three great pyramids of Giza. He is also represented by the best series of statues in the Egyptian Museum, which show him with the goddess Hathor and the gods representing the various regions (nomes) of Egypt.

Pepi II c 2278–2184 BC As the fifth king of the 6th dynasty, Pepi II was still a child when he became king; joy with a dancing pygmy recorded in the Aswan cemetery of the official Harkhuf. As one of the longest-reigning kings in the world (96 years), Pepi contributed to the decline of the Pyramid Age.

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Montuhotep II c 2055–2004 BC As the ruler of Thebes, Montuhotep II unified Egypt and his rule started the Middle Kingdom. He was the first king to build a funerary temple at Deir al-Bahri, where he was buried with his five wives and daughters, with other wives and servants buried in the surrounding area.

Sesostris III (Senwosret, Senusret) c 1874–1855 BC The fifth king of the 12th dynasty, Sesostris III reorganized the administration by taking power from the provincial governors (nomarchs). He strengthened the borders of Egypt and ruled Nubia with a chain of fortresses, and can be recognized by the stern and ‘careworn’ faces of the statues. Her sister was buried in stunning jewelry.

Amenhotep I c 1525–1504 BC As the second king of the 18th dynasty, Amenhotep I ruled for a time with his mother Ahmose-Nofretari. They founded the village of Deir el-Medina for the workers who built the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, and Amenhotep I may have been the first king to be buried there.

History Of Ancient Egypt

Hatshepsut c 1473–1458 BC As Egypt’s most famous female pharaoh, Hatshepsut took power upon the death of her brother-in-law Tuthmosis II and initially ruled alongside her nephew Tuthmosis III. After taking full control, he undertook ambitious building plans, including an obelisk at Karnak Temple and his own spectacular funerary temple at Deir al-Bahri.

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Tuthmosis III c 1479–1425 BC As the sixth king of the 18th dynasty, Tuthmosis III (Napoleon of ancient Egypt) expanded the Egyptian empire with a series of foreign campaigns into Syria. He built extensively at Karnak, adding a chapel at Deir al-Bahri and his tomb was the first in the Valley of the Kings to be decorated.

Amenhotep III c 1390–1352 BC As the ninth king of the 18th dynasty, Amenhotep III’s reign marked the peak of Egyptian culture and power. Creator of Luxor Temple and the largest funerary temple marked by the Colossi of Memnon, many innovations, including the worship of Aten, are usually credited to his son and successor Amenhotep IV (later ‘Akhenaten’).

Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) c 1352–1336 BC Changing his name from Amenhotep to distance himself from the state god Amun, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti moved the royal capital to Amarna. While many still consider him a monotheist and mild revolutionary, the evidence points to him as a dictator who reformed politics rather than religion.

Nefertiti c 1338–1336 BC (?) Famous for her painted bust in Berlin, Nefertiti ruled with her husband Akhenaten, and while the identity of her successor remains controversial, this may have been Nefertiti herself, using the throne name ‘Smenkhkare’. Also controversial is the suggested identification of his mother in tomb KV 35 in the Valley of the Kings.

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Tutankhamun c 1336–1327 BC As the 11th king of the 18th dynasty, Tutankhamun’s fame is based on the many treasures found in his tomb in 1922. Most likely, Akhenaten’s son by his young wife Kiya, Tutankhamun reopened the traditional temple and restored it. Egypt’s wealth after the evil reign of his father.

Horemheb c 1323–1295 BC As a military general, Horemheb restored the Egyptian empire under Tutankhamun and after a short reign Ay eventually became king himself. Married to Nefertiti’s sister Mutnodjmet, his tomb in Saqqara was left for a royal burial in the ornate tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Seti I c 1294–1279 BC The second king of the 19th dynasty, Seti I continued to consolidate the Egyptian empire with foreign campaigns. Most famous for building the Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, the most beautiful temple in Abydos and the great tomb in the Valley of the Kings, his mother in the Egyptian Museum is one of

History Of Ancient Egypt

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